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Planning Enforcement

Under Section 154 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 a planning authority may issue an enforcement notice on an owner or occupier of land in relation to any development.

The matters to be specified in the notice are set out in Section 154. Suffice to say that, pursuant to Section 154 (8), failure to comply with the notice is a criminal offence.

This is very strange.

Firstly, the Planning and Development Act 2000 places no express obligation on the prosecution to prove that the “development” is unauthorised. Development, whether of use or of works, is not unauthorised unless it post-dates 1st October 1964.

Secondly, the Planning and Development Act 2000 makes no express provision for some obvious defences to any requirement that might be made in a notice, such as;

that the “development” is authorised;

that the “development” is not unauthorised;

that the “development” is exempted development:

In short, the offence seems not to be related to planning (sustainable or otherwise), just a failure to follow what may be a caprice of a planning authority official.

If that is true, it raises constitutional issues in any prosecution under Section 154 (8).

“Seems”, in this context is important. It is not inevitable that the offence actually constitute a failure to comply with a notice simpliciter.

The District Court (the offence is triable summarily) is at liberty to interpret the the Section and the evidential burden on the prosecution to avoid working a breach of the constitution. Under the European Convention on Human Rights Act 2003, there is an obligation on Irish courts to interpret legislation to avoid breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights (in this particular instance Article 6 thereof). It is regularly asserted that the Irish constitution already embodies standards equal to if not greater than the European Convention on Human Rights. A prosecution under Section 154 (8) is the ideal occasion to show that this is true.